Researchers find evidence that suggests Neanderthals used feathers to adorn themselves

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Examples of cut-marks from Gibraltar sites. Credit: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.g001 © 2012 Explore further Journal information: PLoS ONE More information: Finlayson C, Brown K, Blasco R, Rosell J, Negro JJ, et al. (2012) Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids. PLoS ONE 7(9): e45927. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045927AbstractThe hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham’s, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of Modern Humans, constitute a major advance in the study of human evolution.center_img Citation: Researchers find evidence that suggests Neanderthals used feathers to adorn themselves (2012, September 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from (—Using objects obtained for the express purpose of adornment is a trait found only in humans, though some have speculated that our early cousins, the Neanderthals, might have done so as well. Some prior research has shown that some groups of them might have used eagle claws as a type of jewelry, while others have suggested they might have tied feathers together and worn them as a headdress, such as native Americans did. But, until now, no clear evidence had been presented to give credence to such theories. In this new effort a group made up of researchers from several different countries looked at the available evidence regarding wing bones and determined that it appears likely that Neanderthals did, as they report in their paper in PLoS ONE, use long wing feathers as a means of adornment. Evidence Neanderthals used feathers for decoration Finding evidence that supports the notion that Neanderthals used feathers to adorn themselves is more than a simple matter of interest, doing so also offers evidence that indicates that the hominins possessed a higher degree of intelligence than has been assumed; and if that is the case, the question of why they died out as we prospered becomes even more difficult to answer.To find evidence of feather adornment, the researchers first looked at the massive amount of data that has been collected on both birds and Neanderthals, specifically regarding their geography and whether birds with long feathers even lived in the areas where Neanderthals roamed. In all, they studied data from 1,699 sites across Eurasia and found that there was indeed a correlation and that there appeared to be a lot of raptor and corvid species living in the same areas as Neanderthals.The team then turned their attention to actual bird bones found around or near Neanderthal archeological finds and discovered that many of them were wing bones that had been manipulated with sharp stones, causing cutting marks, a clear indication that they had been used for some purpose other than as food as wings don’t have any meat on them. They noted also that the Neanderthals appeared to have a preference for birds with dark feathers. Also, they found that marked bones were found at many of the sites indicating that whatever was going on wasn’t local. These findings indicate that Neanderthals were clearly using the long wing feathers for something, and the logical conclusion is that it was for adornment, as that was what humans tended to do with them.The team’s findings don’t prove that Neanderthals adorned themselves with feathers, of course, but it does offer strong evidence, and because of that, more research will likely focus on other advanced intellectual abilities of Neanderthals, and whether there was some other characteristic they possessed that might have led to their demise.last_img read more

Older fathers found to produce less fertile offspring

first_img © 2017 Children of very young and older fathers show distinct patterns of learning social skills Some prior evidence has suggested that as men grow older, they tend to have children that produce fewer offspring than average. In this new effort, the researchers sought to find if that might be true by studying birth records from people in Canada, Germany and Sweden. Officials in those countries have computerized the health, birth and death records of people going back several generations. For their study, the team looked at three populations living during the years 1670 to 1850 and another group of people born in Sweden after 1932. The entire study included over 1.4 million people.To keep the focus on males and aging, the researchers ruled out the mothers’ ages, modern pollutants possibly impacting fertility, and other factors. They report that their study showed that the children of older fathers from all of the groups tended to produce fewer offspring than did those from younger fathers.Learning more about the impact of older people having children has become important as the average age of parents in the developed world has crept upward. Focusing on the father is important, the researchers note, because offspring get most new genetic mutations from their male parent; these increase as fathers age.The researchers suggest that one reason for the reduction in offspring fertility could be mutations occurring in the father’s sperm as he ages, which could somehow impact the ability of their children to have children themselves. Another possibility is that older fathers may have less involvement with their offspring (known as diminishing paternal investment) or give birth to children with other health or mental problems. Some recent studies, for example, have shown that that children born to older fathers are more likely to develop schizophrenia. More information: Ruben C. Arslan et al. Older fathers’ children have lower evolutionary fitness across four centuries and in four populations, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.1562AbstractHigher paternal age at offspring conception increases de novo genetic mutations. Based on evolutionary genetic theory we predicted older fathers’ children, all else equal, would be less likely to survive and reproduce, i.e. have lower fitness. In sibling control studies, we find support for negative paternal age effects on offspring survival and reproductive success across four large populations with an aggregate N > 1.4 million. Three populations were pre-industrial (1670–1850) Western populations and showed negative paternal age effects on infant survival and offspring reproductive success. In twentieth-century Sweden, we found minuscule paternal age effects on survival, but found negative effects on reproductive success. Effects survived tests for key competing explanations, including maternal age and parental loss, but effects varied widely over different plausible model specifications and some competing explanations such as diminishing paternal investment and epigenetic mutations could not be tested. We can use our findings to aid in predicting the effect increasingly older parents in today’s society will have on their children’s survival and reproductive success. To the extent that we succeeded in isolating a mutation-driven effect of paternal age, our results can be understood to show that de novo mutations reduce offspring fitness across populations and time periods. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society Bcenter_img Explore further (—An international team of researchers has conducted an extensive study of male fertility and aging and has found evidence of older fathers producing less fertile offspring than younger fathers. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of the reproductive success of children from males of different ages from several time periods, and what they found. Citation: Older fathers found to produce less fertile offspring (2017, September 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Credit: CC0 Public Domainlast_img read more

Brain chemical differences suggest possible reason for humans having social edge over

first_img Scientists have studied the anatomy of humans and other primates for many years as part of an effort to understand why we humans came to be so dominant. Many assume that it is not just brain size, because prior research has shown that our early ancestors began engaging in advanced activities before our brains grew larger. This, the researchers note, suggests that our ancestors developed different brain chemistry. Brain chemicals play a role in such behaviors as socializing, which logically could lead to better language and other skills. To test this theory, the researchers studied brain chemistry in six species: humans, macaques, baboons, capuchins, chimpanzees and gorillas. Samples for the non-humans were gathered from animals that had died naturally in zoos.The team studied nerve cells from the striatum, which serves as a relay for chemicals in the brain, looking for neurotransmitters, most specifically serotonin, dopamine and neuropeptide Y—they have all been tied to social and cooperative behavior. Doing so revealed brain levels of each when the animal was alive.The researchers found that humans and great apes had higher levels of neuropeptide Y and serotonin in their basal ganglia than the other primates. They also found that humans had more dopamine in the striatum than the apes but less acetylcholine than chimps or gorillas. It is these differences, the group claims, that sets us apart from other primates. They suggest such differences would have made our ancestors more social, leading to a host of evolutionary changes.Interestingly, a separate study was done recently by a team at Kent State—they were looking to explain the demographic success of humans and as part of that research found that female survivorship was a key component. They suggested differences in female brain chemistry led to females mating more often with males who were more outgoing but who were not too aggressive. Such males, they further suggest, would have been better providers because by that point in history, hunting was done in groups. More information: 1. Mary Ann Raghanti et al. A neurochemical hypothesis for the origin of hominids, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719666115AbstractIt has always been difficult to account for the evolution of certain human characters such as language, empathy, and altruism via individual reproductive success. However, the striatum, a subcortical region originally thought to be exclusively motor, is now known to contribute to social behaviors and “personality styles” that may link such complexities with natural selection. We here report that the human striatum exhibits a unique neurochemical profile that differs dramatically from those of other primates. The human signature of elevated striatal dopamine, serotonin, and neuropeptide Y, coupled with lowered acetylcholine, systematically favors externally driven behavior and greatly amplifies sensitivity to social cues that promote social conformity, empathy, and altruism. We propose that selection induced an initial form of this profile in early hominids, which increased their affiliative behavior, and that this shift either preceded or accompanied the adoption of bipedality and elimination of the sectorial canine. We further hypothesize that these changes were critical for increased individual fitness and promoted the adoption of social monogamy, which progressively increased cooperation as well as a dependence on tradition-based cultural transmission. These eventually facilitated the acquisition of language by elevating the reproductive advantage afforded those most sensitive to social cues.2. Richard S. Meindl et al. Early hominids may have been weed species, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719669115AbstractPanid, gorillid, and hominid social structures appear to have diverged as dramatically as did their locomotor patterns as they emerged from a late Miocene last common ancestor (LCA). Despite their elimination of the sectorial canine complex and adoption of bipedality with its attendant removal of their ready access to the arboreal canopy, Australopithecus was able to easily invade novel habitats after florescence from its likely ancestral genus, Ardipithecus sp. Other hominoids, unable to sustain sufficient population growth, began an inexorable decline, culminating in their restriction to modern refugia. Success similar to that of earliest hominids also characterizes several species of macaques, often termed “weed species.” We here review their most salient demographic features and find that a key element is irregularly elevated female survival. It is reasonable to conclude that a similar feature characterized early hominids, most likely made possible by the adoption of social monogamy. Reduced female mortality is a more probable key to early hominid success than a reduction in birth space, which would have been physiologically more difficult. Small but distinct differences among species mark evolution of human brain © 2018 Citation: Brain chemical differences suggest possible reason for humans having social edge over other primates (2018, January 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencescenter_img Credit: CC0 Public Domain A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. has found some key differences in brain chemicals between humans and other primates. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group suggests these differences could explain the social edge humans have over other primates. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Making catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot out of paraconnected benzene rings

first_imgA team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has developed a way to create catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot out of para-connected benzene rings. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their process and possible uses of their results. Jeff Van Raden, and Ramesh Jasti with the University of Oregon, have published a Perspective piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Explore further More information: Yasutomo Segawa et al. Topological molecular nanocarbons: All-benzene catenane and trefoil knot, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aav5021 © 2019 Science X Network Credit: CC0 Public Domain Citation: Making catenanes and a molecular trefoil knot out of para-connected benzene rings (2019, July 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Researchers create most tangled interlocked molecule ever In recent years, carbon-based materials such as graphene, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes have captured the imagination of scientists—such materials have a wide range of unique physical properties that make them useful for certain applications. Graphene, for example, is a zero-gap semiconductor. Scientists have also been looking at ways in which such structures can be formed. In this new effort, the researchers have found a way to get benzene rings to form into two kinds of catenanes, and also a trefoil knot. Catenanes are a type of molecular architecture with two or more interlocking macrocycles. And a trefoil knot, as its name suggests, is a molecular structure that that resembles a knot with three crossings. By creating these structures, the researchers have added molecules that are mechanically bonded to the list of carbon nanostructures.To create their structures, the researchers built on prior work that involved synthesizing benzene rings—but this time around, they introduced a silicon template on adjoining fragments of nanorings. After the fragments had cyclized into rings, the researchers removed the silicon, which left behind small rings interlocked with larger rings, structures called catenanes. They used a similar process to create the trefoil knot, but note that it was more difficult—only 0.3 percent of attempts worked out as planned.The researchers also note that during testing of the nanocarbons they had created, they found something surprising—the chains in the structures moved around when exposed to magnetic resonance. They had expected all of the structures would be rigid. They suggest that the ability to control the topology of such nanocarbons could lead to the development of products that take advantage of their unique configurations. Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Marian Anderson The Most Modest Trailblazer

first_img London Express Marian Anderson: The Most Modest Trailblazer by NPR News Anastasia Tsioulcas 8.27.19 11:43am Classical singer Marian Anderson was one of the all-time greats — both as an artist, and as a cultural figure who broke down racial barriers. She is best known for performing at the Lincoln Memorial in 1939, after she was denied permission to sing for an integrated audience at Washington’s DAR Constitution Hall. But she was much more than that — she helped shape American music.Marian Anderson was so talented as a child that the church she attended took up collections to help pay for music lessons. That was when she first learned how to sing, as Anderson told NPR member station WQXR in 1974 (in a interview that is now part of the Marian Anderson Papers at the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts at the University of Pennsylvania).”I became aware for the first time that there were two ways of doing it,” Anderson told WQXR. “One was absolutely natural and one was one that I had to think about. But I know if you’re going to do anything, you have to know how you’re going to do it and why you’re doing it that way.”In that radio interview, Anderson’s innate modesty comes through: She often refers to herself as “we” or “one” — not out of grandiosity, but because she was keenly aware that she, too, stood on the shoulders of others. When she sang “My Country ‘Tis Of Thee” at the Lincoln Memorial, she changed the words “of thee I sing” to “to thee we sing.” In later years, she explained: “We cannot live alone. And the thing that made this moment possible for you and for me has been brought about by many people whom we will never know.” Anderson not only sang European classical music, but she presented spirituals as high art as well. Her parents were born just a few years after the end of the Civil War. Her mother had grown up in Virginia — a former slave state. Singer and multi-instrumentalist Rhiannon Giddens says by performing spirituals in the concert hall, Anderson linked generations of listeners to Black American history.”It’s not just ‘Oh, I’m singing Mozart,’ Giddens observes. “There’s this knowledge of, ‘I am actually uplifting my entire race by singing this music’ — and there’s a lot of that, especially in the early years [of recorded music], where it was still fairly rare to see a Black person singing in a classical manner even though that’s been part of African-American culture since the beginning of being here. I think people feel that — they feel there’s something else going on. They feel that there’s another allegiance there. It’s not just an allegiance to Western art music, there’s also an allegiance to a lifting of the culture through the art form. And that’s a very powerful thing.”Anderson was a contralto; she could go much deeper than most female singers. Giddens says that Anderson used that voice — and her classical training — to channel intense emotions.”Some singers are able to tap into the core of their sound in a way so that it feels like there’s nothing in the way,” Giddens says. “There’s no sort of translation going on, there’s no doorway.”Certain doors were closed for Marian Anderson in the United States. So, like so many Black artists and creators, she made much of her career in Europe, where she was welcomed. She even performed for the great Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in his home.”I remember that Sibelius came over to me, embraced me and said, ‘My roof is too low for you,'” she told WQXR in 1974.At home, Marian Anderson’s performance at the Lincoln Memorial is what has gotten memorialized. But she encountered intense racism in the U.S. long after that famous concert. She didn’t made her debut at New York’s Metropolitan Opera until 1955, when she was already 57 years old; she was the first African-American soloist to appear at the Met. Her performance came just months after the Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, and the same year that Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Ala.Getting into the Met was a hard fight, as her biographer, Allan Keiler, told NPR in 2000. “There was a tremendous resistance to bringing Black singers to the Met,” Keiler said. “The Metropolitan board was against it. It was very difficult to make any inroads.”Keiler added that Anderson was decades older than most singers are when they make a debut like that. In fact, hers came only about ten years before she retired.”It must have taken enormous courage for her to accept that invitation,” Keiler said. “I think she did it because she knew how important it was for singers who were younger to have an opportunity to sing, not because she was artistically at the high point of her career any longer. It was for others that she sang there, not for herself.”Noted Canadian soprano Measha Brueggergosman says, “That’s grace, when you accept the hand extended to you even though it had slapped you in the face countless times before. That’s grace.”Brueggergosman says Anderson brought her very particular experiences as a Black woman of her time to her art. “There is a certain assurance that comes from — I mean, let’s say it — women of that age, but more specifically Black women of that time, who just knew that they would have to forge on, against all odds, and just got about doing their work. And that’s very much how I see Marian Anderson.”Brueggergosman shares Marian Anderson’s deep Christian faith — and, the younger singer says, she can hear those convictions radiating out of Anderson’s recordings. She points to Anderson’s recording of Mahler’s Kindertotenlieder as an example; it’s a song cycle about the death of children.”The world lives in deep emergency, in deep sorrow, in deep pain,” Brueggergosman says. “The beauty of salvation is that all this is true, but God is still on the throne. That transition from, ‘It’s total crap here’ to ‘I’d rather be in heaven’ — Anderson is so inseparable from that transition. In my mind, I have called to that transition over and over in countless situations, whether they be musical or not.”Both Brueggergosman and Rhiannon Giddens say they owe a lot to Marian Anderson — for her convictions, for her artistry and for the path that she laid for them and so many others.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.last_img read more

From behind the bars

first_imgA play is based on famous story Hawalaat penned by popular playwright Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena is all set to enthrall the Capital. Directed by Devesh Nigam, the story unfolds with the meeting of three youngsters and policeman on a chilly winter night and proceeds as an interrogation which reveals how everyone has made a mockery of system and principles which were fabricated for our own good. Hawalaat is being brought to the Delhi stage by Cineaste’. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Cineaste’ is a registered youth based independent theatre group formed in June 2011. The group is a bunch of passionate working professionals and students who are ready to devise their own path for fulfillment of dreams. So far the group has come up with nine stage productions along with three critically acclaimed short films. Director of the play, Devesh Nigam completed his engineering from Delhi Technological University in 2008 after which he decided to switch gears and follow his heart. And today, he has his own unique theatre group Cineaste’, for which he writes and directs plays and  short films. So far he has written four plays and directed nine productions and has received critical acclaims for his work which includes Kafan (Munshi Premchand), Death of a Govt Clerk (Anton Chekov), Happy B’day (based on Gandhi’s talisman), Snow White and Seven Dwarves, Addiction (Devesh Nigam)  among others.Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena, the playwright was a noted Hindi writer, poet, columnist and playwright. He was one of the seven poets who first published in one of the Tar Saptaks, which ushered in the Prayogvaad (Experimentalism) era, which in time evolved to became the Nayi Kavita (New Poetry) movement. Pencil in the dates for this one.last_img read more

Households under NDMC eligible to install solar panels

first_imgHouseholds under the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) areas will now be able to install solar panel on rooftops to generate electricity but would have to sell it to the civic body and not utilise it for personal consumption.In a first-of-its kind scheme launched by the NDMC, households under its jurisdiction are being encouraged to install solar panels and get them linked with the civic body’s power grid.NDMC will purchase the electricity from the households and adjust the amount against the monthly bill. Also Read – Company director arrested for swindling Rs 345 croreThe scheme, which is part of NDMC’s smart-city project, has also received the nod of Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission (DERC).“As per the scheme, the households will have to get the solar panels installed at their own cost and apply to NDMC for connecting it with our electricity distribution network,” a senior NDMC official said.“Once the application is received, we will conduct a feasibility analysis that whether or not their solar plants are compatible with our power grid, depending on which the connection will be granted. The applicant will also have to pay us a fee of Rs 500 for the feasibility check,” the official said. Also Read – Man who cheated 20 women on matrimonial websites arrestedNDMC has already received six applications for the scheme, which is scheduled to be implemented from next month.“After the connection is granted, the consumer will have to install a net-meter, which can be procured from NDMC but the cost will have to be borne by the applicant. The meter will be able to calculate the power sold within a month.“The net metering system will have two dials. While one dial will record the amount of electricity that the consumer is drawing, the other will record the amount of electricity that the consumer is exporting as surplus power and final adjustments will be made on the bill,” the official said.However, the rates of the power consumed and power sold will be different. While the power will be sold to consumers in accordance with DERC tariff rates, it will be purchased on average procurement basis.Initially, the scheme is being launched for domestic consumers; however, NDMC plans to extend it to commercial establishments in the longer run.last_img read more

Hardik to be feted at Patels rally in Madhya Pradesh next month

first_imgPatel community members in MP will organise a rally on October 11 in Ratlam to express solidarity with their brethren in Gujarat, who are agitating for their inclusion in OBC quota, said MP Patidar Samaj (MPPS) president Mahendra Patidar on Wednesday. He said that leader of the Patel quota agitation in Gujarat, Hardik Patel, would be the chief guest at the rally, wherein organisers are expecting a turnout of 2.5 lakh people.last_img

Heart patient Cut down on sitting time

first_imgIf you are suffering from ailments related to the heart, make it a point to get up and move every half an hour as researchers have found that patients with heart disease who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise.”Limiting the amount of time we spend sitting may be as important as the amount we exercise,” said study lead author Stephanie Prince from University of Ottawa in Canada. “Sitting, watching TV, working at a computer and driving in a car are all sedentary behaviours and we need to take breaks from them,” Prince explained. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Previous research has shown that being sedentary increases the risk of cardiovascular disease but until now its effect on patients with established heart disease was unknown.The current study investigated levels of sedentary behaviour and the effect on health in 278 patients with coronary artery disease. The patients had been through a cardiac rehabilitation programme which taught them how to improve their levels of exercise in the long term.Patients wore an activity monitor during their waking hours for nine days. The monitors allowed the researchers to measure how long patients spent being sedentary, or doing light, moderate or vigorous levels of physical activity. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe researchers also assessed various markers of health including body mass index (BMI) and cardio-respiratory fitness. Next they looked at whether the amount of time a person spent being sedentary (which was mainly sitting) was related to these markers of health.The results showed that patients who sat more had a higher BMI. They also had lower cardio-respiratory fitness. The study was published in the European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention.last_img read more

Surendranath Law College students protest against attendance fine

first_imgKolkata: The students of Surendranath Law College put up a road block in front of Calcutta University on College Street on Wednesday morning after college authorities asked some students to pay a fine of Rs 2,000 for their failure to achieve 70 percent attendance in class.The incident caused traffic congestion on college street prompting the senior police officers to intervene. The road block was later lifted following their intervention.A chaos broke out in the area as many students took to the street shouting slogans.The students taking part in the agitation said college authorities had asked them to pay an amount of Rs 2,000 as fine after they failed to meet the minimum required attendance.The students came to know about the fine on a whatsApp group on Tuesday night. The message read — ‘Those who do not have 70 percent attendance in college will not be allowed to appear for the examination unless they pay Rs 2, 000 as fine.’ The decision had made the students angry and they decided to organise a sit-in demonstration in front CU’s CollegeStreet campus. The agitating students on Wednesday said college authorities cannot impose a fine of Rs 2,000 on the matter mentioned just two days ahead of the last date of filling up the examination form.They also threatened to organise bigger movement if their demands are not met.Some of the students said college authorities must reconsider the issue as it would affect many candidates. They also expressed their inability to pay the fine.The traffic movement was disrupted on College Street for sometime in the morning due to road block.Senior police officers urged the agitating students to lift the block following the agitation was withdrawn.last_img read more